Adaptación y validación de la Escala de Actitudes de Culpabilización de la Víctima en Casos de Violencia de Pareja contra la Mujer (VB-IPVAW) en población ecuatoriana

Adaptation and validation of the Victim-Blaming Attitudes in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women (VB-IPVAW) Scale in Ecuadorian population

Aída M. Villagrán , Manuel Martín-Fernández , Enrique Gracia , Marisol Lila
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología (2020) 52, 243-252.
Recibido el 31 de mayo de 2020
Aceptado el 14 de septiembre de 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.24

Resumen

La violencia de pareja contra la mujer (VPM) constituye un grave problema de salud pública con importantes consecuencias para la salud física y psicológica de las mujeres. Las actitudes de culpabilización de la víctima pueden contribuir a crear un clima de aceptación social en el que la VPM se perciba como una conducta normativa, influyendo en las respuestas de los individuos, comunidades, e instituciones frente a este problema. Ecuador es uno de los países de Latinoamérica donde la prevalencia de VPM es más alta, y las investigaciones sobre esta temática son todavía escasas. El objetivo de este estudio es adaptar y validar la Escala Española de Actitudes de Culpabilización de la Víctima (VB-IPVAW) al entorno cultural ecuatoriano. Para ello se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas de la escala en una muestra de 1122 ecuatorianos, así como su invarianza factorial entre hombres y mujeres con una segunda muestra de 400 estudiantes universitarios. Se examinó también el posible sesgo por deseabilidad social de los ítems de este instrumento. Los resultados mostraron que la escala VB-IPVAW tiene una excelente consistencia interna, que se relaciona con otros constructos como la gravedad percibida de la VPM y el sexismo ambivalente, que sus ítems tienen una baja carga de deseabilidad social y que es invariante entre géneros. La adaptación de la escala VB-IPVAW al contexto cultural ecuatoriano representa un avance clave en el estudio y la comprensión de las actitudes de culpabilización a la víctima, proporcionando un instrumento fiable y válido para evaluar estas actitudes.

Palabras clave:
Culpabilización de la víctima, actitudes, violencia de pareja, violencia contra la mujer, medición

Abstract

Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a major public health problem with serious consequences for women’s physical and psychological health. Victim-blaming attitudes can shape a social climate of acceptance where IPVAW can be perceived as normative, affecting the responses of individuals, communities, and institutions to this problem. Ecuador is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of IPVAW in Latin America, and research addressing this issue is still scarce. The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish Scale of Victim-Blaming Attitudes in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women (VB-IPVAW) to the Ecuadorian cultural context. To this end, the psychometric properties of this scale were assessed in a sample of 1122 Ecuadorian participants, and also its measurement invariance across gender in a second sample of 400 college students. The potential social desirability bias of the items was also examined. Results showed that the VB-IPVAW scale has an excellent internal consistency, is related to other constructs, such as perceived severity of IPVAW and ambivalent sexism, their items presented low loadings of social desirability, and its invariant across gender. The adaptation of the VB-IPVAW scale to the Ecuadorian cultural context constitutes a step forward in the study and understanding of victim-blaming attitudes, providing a reliable and valid instrument to assess these attitudes.

Keywords:
Victim blaming, attitudes, intimate partner violence, violence against women, measurement

Artículo Completo
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