Cogniciones en el lado oscuro: desconexión moral, tríada oscura y conducta antisocial en adolescentes

Cognitions on the dark side: Moral disengagement, dark triad and antisocial behavior in adolescents

María Patricia Navas , Laura Férriz , Olalla Cutrín , Lorena Maneiro , Xosé Antón Gómez-Fraguela , Jorge Sobral
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, (2020), 52, pp. 131-140.
Recibido 14 de noviembre de 2019
Aceptado 28 de abril de 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.13

Resumen

En el marco de una tradición de investigación relativamente reciente, ciertos rasgos psicológicos relacionados con diversas conductas socialmente reprobables se han agrupado bajo la denominación de “Factor oscuro o lado oscuro de la personalidad”. En este contexto, este trabajo estudia la varianza común que pudiera existir entre los tres componentes del constructo tríada oscura (maquiavelismo, narcisismo y psicopatía) y los procesos cognitivos constitutivos del constructo desconexión moral, en orden a relacionarlos con la conducta antisocial de una muestra de 800 adolescentes (M = 15.33, SD = .99; 50.1 % chicos). El análisis factorial exploratorio sugirió retener cuatro factores mediante el Análisis Paralelo de Horn. Estos factores se sometieron a una rotación bifactorial en el contexto exploratorio, y sus índices de ajuste fueron adecuados χ² (1219.42, 737) = 1.65 p < .05; RMSEA = .03 [.01, .05]; CFI = .98. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de este modelo bifactorial para representar el lado oscuro, obtuvo índices de ajuste óptimos χ² (392.38, 150) = 2.61 p < .05; RMSEA = .04 [.04, .05]; CFI = .95; y similar para chicos y chicas. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales indicó que el “lado oscuro”, entendido aquí como las características comunes de la tríada oscura y la desconexión moral, está directa e intensamente relacionado con conductas antisociales en chicas (β = .57, p < .001) y en chicos (β = .54, p < .001). Finalmente, se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados para la prevención de una amplia gama de conductas antisociales en adolescentes.

Palabras clave:
Lado oscuro, tríada oscura de la personalidad, desconexión moral, conducta antisocial, adolescentes

Abstract

Within the context of a recent research tradition, certain psychological traits related to various socially reprehensible behaviors have been grouped under the name of «Dark Factor or dark side of personality.» In this context, this paper studies the common variance that could exist between the three components of the Dark Triad construct (Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy) and the constituent cognitive processes of Moral Disengagement construct, in order to relate them to the antisocial behavior of a sample composed of 800 adolescents (M = 15.36, SD = .99; 50.1 % boys). Exploratory factor analysis suggested retaining four factors using Horn Parallel Analysis. These factors were subjected to a bifactorial rotation in the exploratory context, and their fit indices were adequate χ² (1219.42, 737) = 1.65 p <.05; RMSEA = .03 [.01, .05]; CFI = .98. The confirmatory factor analysis of this bifactorial model to represent the dark side obtained optimal fit indices χ² (392.38, 150) = 2.61 p <.05; RMSEA = .04 [.04, .05]; CFI = .95; similar for boys and girls. The results of the structural equation model indicated that the “dark side”, understood here as the common characteristics of the Dark Triad and Moral Disengagement, is directly and intensely related to antisocial behaviors in girls (β = .57, p < .001) and boys (β = .54, p < .001). Finally, the implications of these results for the prevention of a wide range of antisocial behaviors in adolescents are discussed.

Keywords:
Dark side, dark triad of personality, moral disengagement, antisocial behavior, adolescents

Artículo Completo
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