Improving retention by placing retrieval practice at the end of class: A naturalistic study

Mejorando la retención al realizar la práctica de recuperación al final de la clase: un estudio naturalístico

Roberta Ekuni , Sabine Pompeia
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, (2020), 52, pp. 22-32.
Received 1 April 2019
Accepted 29 November 2019

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.3

Resumen

El intento de recordar la información presentada previamente mediante pruebas o cuestionarios (práctica de recuperación, RP) mejora la memoria. Sin embargo, en las clases reales no está claro en qué momento debe realizarse las pruebas para obtener un mejor aprendizaje. Probamos a los estudiantes utilizando materiales auténticos de cursos de licenciatura en dos momentos, seguidos de una retroalimentación colectiva: (a) al final de la clase en la que se enseñó el contenido; o (b) al principio de la siguiente clase. La reenseñanza (RT) del mismo contenido a través de revisiones dirigidas por el profesor en el mismo momento se utilizó como condición de control. La RP y la RT más la retroalimentación tomaron 15 minutos de clases de 100 minutos de duración y se aplicaron durante 12 clases después de las cuales la retención fue evaluada por exámenes. Los participantes fueron 114 estudiantes inscritos en un curso impartido cada dos semanas. Las pruebas (RP) realizadas una vez al final de la misma clase en la que el contenido se enseñó, aumentó los resultados académicos en alrededor de un 10% en comparación con las otras manipulaciones.

Palabras clave
Efecto de las pruebas, memoria, aprendizaje basado en la evidencia

Abstract

Attempting to recall previously encountered information by being tested or quizzed (retrieval practice: RP) enhances memory. In real classrooms, however, it is unclear when testing should take place (placement) in order to elicit better learning. We tested students using authentic undergraduate-course materials with two placements, followed by collective feedback: (a) at the end of the class in which content was taught; or (b) at the beginning of the next class. Re-teaching (RT) the same content through lecturer led-reviews at the same placements was used as a control condition. RP and RT plus feedback took 15 min of 100 min-long classes and were applied during 12 classes after which retention was assessed by exams. Participants were 114 students enrolled in a biweekly taught course. Testing (RP) once at the end of the same class in which content was taught boosted academic scores by around 10% compared to the other manipulations.

Keywords
Testing effect, memory, evidence-based learning

Artículo Completo
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