Life satisfaction among indigenous people from Chile: Evaluation of measurement invariance

Satisfacción con la vida en indígenas de Chile: evaluación de la invarianza de medida

Camila Salazar-Fernández , Regina M. Navarro , Berta Schnettler , José L. Saiz
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, (2020), 52, pp. 33-41.
Received 5 February 2019
Accepted 27 January 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.4

Resumen

Aunque la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida (SWLS) se ha usado para comparar personas de distintas naciones/culturas, no siempre su invarianza de medición ha sido demostrada. La aculturación forzada de las minorías indígenas y sus particulares roles de género podrían afectar las respuestas de esas personas a esta escala. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo examinar la invarianza de la SWLS en un grupo indígena chileno, considerando el género y los tipos aculturativos más frecuentes (i.e., aculturados y biculturales). Ochocientos adultos mapuches respondieron, en castellano, la SWLS y la Escala de Aculturación Mapuche. Se encontró apoyo para invarianza estricta entre aculturados y biculturales y, además, entre hombres y mujeres aculturados. Se encontró invarianza estricta parcial entre hombres y mujeres biculturales; específicamente, la varianza residual del ítem 3 fue mayor en mujeres que en hombres. Siendo el castellano un idioma con distinción de géneros, se propuso una explicación lingüística para la falta de invarianza de ese ítem. Se discute la importancia de redactar cuidadosamente los ítems cuando son administrados en contextos aculturativos multilingües.

Palabras clave
Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida, chilenos indígenas, invarianza de medición, aculturación, género

Abstract

Although the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS) has been used to establish comparisons among nations/cultures, the measurement invariance of this scale has not always been demonstrated. The forced acculturative experience of indigenous minorities and its differentiation of gender roles could impact how people respond to this scale. The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SWLS when it is applied to a Chilean indigenous group, considering gender and their most frequent acculturative types (i.e., acculturated and bicultural). Eight hundred adults of Mapuche origin answered a Spanish version of the SWLS and the Mapuche Acculturation Scale. The results supported the SWLS strict invariance between acculturated and bicultural and also between acculturated men and women. Partial strict invariance was found between bicultural men and women; specifically, the residual variance of Item 3 was higher in women than in men. Since Spanish is a gendered language, a linguistic explanation is proposed for the non-invariance of this item. The importance of careful wording of the items, when administered in multilanguage acculturation contexts, is discussed.

Keywords
Satisfaction with Life Scale, indigenous Chileans, measurement invariance, acculturation, gender

Artículo Completo
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