A lexical decision task to measure crystallized-verbal ability in Spanish

Una tarea de decisión léxica para medir la capacidad verbal cristalizada en español

Graham Pluck
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, (2020), 52, pp. 1-10.
Received 15 May 2019
Accepted 29 November 2019

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.1

Resumen

Una distinción clásica en la ciencia cognitiva es entre las habilidades fluidas y cristalizadas. La habilidad fluida es medida por muchas funcionas ejecutivas y tests de inteligencia. Por otro lado, la habilidad cristalizada puede ser medida sencillamente mediante una tarea de decisión léxica, como en la versión en inglés conocida como Spot-the-Word Test. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no ha habido una versión similar de este test en español. Aquí les presento una Tarea de Decisión Léxica en Español que es de rápida aplicación. Esta fue aplicada en una muestra de 139 participantes, adultos normotípicos. Los resultados indican que este nuevo test tiene buena consistencia interna y confiabilidad test-retest. Los análisis de las correlaciones entre este nuevo test y las variables demográficas, al igual que con las sub pruebas de las Escala de Inteligencia de Wechsler para Adultos, sugiere que es una medida confiable de la habilidad verbal cristalizada. También parece ser una breve, pero válida evaluación de inteligencia en general, con validez predictiva establecida por sus correlaciones positivas con el logro académico. Este nuevo test tiene potencial para ser una herramienta útil para medir rápidamente habilidad de lectura, habilidad verbal cristalizada e inteligencia en adultos hispanohablantes.

Palabras clave
Habilidad verbal, inteligencia cristalizada, decisión léxica, lectura, evaluación cognitiva

Abstract

A classical distinction in cognitive science is between fluid and crystalized abilities. Fluid ability is captured by many common executive function and intelligence tests. Crystalized ability, on the other hand, can be measured quite simply via lexical decision tasks including the English-language Spot-the-Word Test. However, no similar Spanish-language test has been available up to now. This paper presents a Spanish-language Lexical Decision Task that is quick to administer and was tested on sample of 139 normal adult participants. Results indicate that the new test has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. An analysis of the correlations between this new test and demographic variables, as well as with the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale suggest that it is a valid measure of crystalized-verbal ability. It also appears to be a brief but valid assessment of intelligence in general, and its positive correlation with academic achievement establishes predictive validity. The new test has the potential to be a useful research tool to rapidly measure reading ability, crystalized-verbal ability, and intelligence in Spanish speaking adults.

Keywords
Verbal ability, crystalized intelligence, lexical decision, reading, cognitive assessment

Artículo Completo
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