Adaptation and Factor Structure of the Hospital Anxiety and
Depression Scale on Chilean Children and Adolescents

Adaptación y estructura factorial de la Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión Hospitalaria en niños y adolescentes chilenos

Melissa González-Loyola , Cristian Oyanadel , Wenceslao Peñate
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, (2020), 52, pp. 63-70.
Received 2 October 2019
Accepted 28 April 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.7

Resumen

La alta prevalencia de trastornos mentales relacionados con la ansiedad y el estado de ánimo depresivo durante la infancia y la adolescencia requiere una detección oportuna de los niveles de tales variables en esta población. Para este propósito se requieren instrumentos válidos, confiables y fáciles de administrar. La Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión Hospitalaria (HADS) representa un instrumento con esas características. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar la HADS en una muestra representativa (entre 8 y 16 años) de niños y adolescentes chilenos. El estudio se realizó en cuatro etapas: entrevistas cognitivas (N = 10), análisis factorial confirmatorio (N = 467), test-retest en intervalos de dos semanas (n = 126) y un mes (n = 227). Los resultados indicaron que la HADS adaptada de 12 ítems, tendría una estructura de dos factores (ansiedad y ánimo depresivo), confiabilidad adecuada para la subescala de ansiedad (α = .75), pero no para el ánimo depresivo (α = .65), ausencia de correlación significativa entre factores y diferencias según género y tipo de escuela. Se concluye que la HADS adaptada es confiable para su uso con adolescentes chilenos. Este estudio apoya la estructura de dos factores de ansiedad-depresión, sin embargo, la estructura de tres factores también alcanzó coeficientes de ajuste significativos.

Palabras clave
Adolescentes, niños, ansiedad, estado de ánimo depresivo, salud mental

Abstract

The high prevalence of mental disorders related to anxiety and depressive mood during childhood and adolescence requires a constant screening of the levels of such variables. For that purpose, instruments that are valid, reliable and easy to administrate are needed. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) represents an instrument with those characteristics. The aim of this study was to adapt the HADS, in a representative sample (between 8 and 16 years old) of Chilean children and adolescents. The study was conducted in four stages: cognitive interviews (N=10), confirmatory factor analysis (N=467), test-retest with two weeks (n=126) and one-month (n=227) intervals. The results indicated that the adapted HADS, with an extension of 12 items, would have a structure of two factors (anxiety and depressive mood), adequate reliability for the anxiety subscale (α = .75), but not for depression (α = .65), an absence of a significant correlation between factors, and differences according to gender and type of school. It is concluded that the adapted HADS is reliable for its use with Chilean adolescents. This study supports the two-factor structure of anxiety-depression. However, the structure of three factors also reached significant adjustment coefficients.

Keywords:
Adolescents, children, anxiety, depressive mood, mental health

Artículo Completo
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