The sustained increase of mental health symptoms in Chilean university students over three years

Aumento sostenido de síntomas de salud mental durante tres años en estudiantes universitarios chilenos

Catalina Álamo , Zayra Antúnez , Tomas BaaderJasmine Kendall , Mauricio BarrientosDiego de la Barra
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, (2020), 52, pp. 71-80.
Received 28 November 2019
Accepted 28 April 2020

doi: https://doi.org/10.14349/rlp.2020.v52.8

Resumen

Dadas las altas tasas de problemas de salud mental en población general y en particular, en población universitaria, el objetivo principal de este estudio es determinar la prevalencia de síntomas de salud mental en estudiantes de la Universidad Austral de Chile entre los años 2015 y 2017. Se utilizó un muestreo por conveniencia, con un diseño correlacional no experimental de carácter transversal. Las muestras finales se compusieron de 1631 estudiantes en el año 2015, 1518 en 2016 y 1707 en 2017. Los instrumentos utilizados midieron depresión, ansiedad, estrés, desesperanza, restricción alimentaria y apoyo social funcional. Se realizaron análisis de confiabilidad, descriptivos y de contraste polinómico que buscaron tendencias lineales y cuadráticas a través de ANOVA. Los resultados indican un aumento sostenido en los porcentajes de sintomatologías y una disminución en la percepción del apoyo social. También hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre hombres y mujeres encuestados, siendo las mujeres quienes muestran más síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés durante los tres años estudiados. Los resultados coinciden con los hallazgos a nivel mundial sobre la prevalencia de problemas de salud mental en estudiantes universitarios. Estos datos han permitido a los profesionales de la universidad dirigir mejor sus esfuerzos para apoyar y tratar a los estudiantes y promover la salud en general.

Palabras clave:
Salud mental, estudiantes universitarios, prevalencia, prevención

Abstract

Given the high rates of mental health problems within the general population and, particularly, the university population, the main goal of this paper is to determine the prevalence of symptoms related to mental health in students at the University Austral de Chile between 2015 and 2017. A convenience sample was taken with a non-experimental correlational design of a transversal character. The final samples were composed of 1631 students in the year 2015, 1518 in 2016 and 1707 in 2017. The Instruments used measured depression, anxiety, stress, hopelessness, alimentary restraint, and functional social support. Reliability analysis, descriptive and polynomial contrast analysis which searched for linear and quadratic trends through ANOVA were perform. The results indicate a sustained rise in the percentages of symptomologies and a decline in the perception of social support. There are also statistically significant differences between men and women surveyed, with women showing more symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress over the three years studied. The results are concurrent with findings on a global level concerning the prevalence of mental health problems in university students. This data has allowed university professionals to better direct their efforts in supporting and treating students and promoting health in general.

Keywords:
Mental health, university students, prevalence, prevention

Artículo Completo
Bibliografía

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